The Abbasid Caliphate was when the Middle East was under control of a prophet who learned from Muhammad. The Abbasid Caliphate was the third time for this to happen. This installment took began in 750 CE and ended in 1258 CE. This time period could be considered an empire. The capital changed, but the language was the same as Arabic.
The currency used was the dinar which was a gold coin, the dirham which was a silver coin and the fals which was a copper coin. After this empire, it became known as the Ottoman Empire which is more widely known. The empire declined due to their conflict with the Shia Muslims. Other leaders took over and it moved to become the Ottoman Empire.
The Abbasid Caliphate ruled the Islamic world from 750 to 1258 AD. It was one of the largest empires in the world during its early history and it was also one of the “longest and most influential Islamic dynasties”. Its decline happened slowly beginning with Caliph al-Ma’mun’s (813–833) reign.
Over time, as different Caliph’s came to power, their influence over the people and the region rose and fell due to many different factors. Eventually, they were primarily just figure heads. The last Caliph, al-Mu`tasim (r. 1242–1258), turned to the Mongols for help against his chief rival and ruler of Persia, the Sultanate of Khwarazm. However, the Mongols turned against al- Mu`tasim, surrounded Baghdad, killed the caliph, and completely destroyed the city.