Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines or Chelonia and are characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield. Turtles have rigid beaks and use their jaws to cut and chew food. Instead of having teeth, which they appear to have lost about 150-200 million years ago, the upper and lower jaws of the turtle are covered by horny ridges.
Carnivorous turtles usually have knife-sharp ridges for slicing through their prey. Herbivorous turtles have serrated-edged ridges that help them cut through tough plants. They use their tongues to swallow food, but unlike most reptiles, they cannot stick out their tongues to catch food.