Three impacts of the black plague on Europe were that the population dropped significantly, the economy suffered significantly, and medicine changed. The hygiene of the time was horrible; people literally pooped out the window. Because of this and other poor hygiene practices - such as a belief that bathing was bad for you if done more than once or twice a year - the black plague spread rapidly through the land.
As for the economy, this ties into the population drop. At least sixty percent of the population died from this disease, laborers were in short supply. Those who lived through the plague suddenly found themselves with plenty of jobs and plenty of people ready to pay for it. Medicine change rapidly after this. Surgeons became more important, and research became more intense and varied.