Manifestations of lead toxicity include anemia-lead is a particularly toxic metal. small amounts accumulate to reach toxic levels. lead crosses the placenta, exposing the fetus to lead levels comparable with those of the mother. the toxicity of lead is related to its multiple biochemical effects. it has the ability to inactivate enzymes, compete with calcium for incorporation into bone, and interfere with nerve transmission and brain development. the major targets are the red blood cells, the gastrointestinal tract, the kidneys, and the nervous system. some of the manifestations of lead toxicity include anemia, acute abdominal pain, signs of kidney damage, and cognitive deficits and neuropathies resulting from demyelination of cerebral and cerebellar white matter and death of cortical nerve cells (p. 36).