Before the Civil War, there were actually several differences between the southern and northern states ranging from demographics to income potential, production choices, sociopolitical philosophies, occupational opportunities, economic classes, and development. Though before the Civil War, both the northern and southern states are much involved in agriculture, the northern states advanced by being more urbanized and industrialized while the southern states still remain focused more on agriculture.
Thus, the population of the northern states was larger than two times of that of the southern states. In carrying out there industrial or agricultural activities, the northern states advanced into the invention of machinery, while the southern states still remain depending on slaves for labor despite the increase in the price of slaves then. In addition, the northern states also invested in education than the southern states, which birthed more of public schools in the northern states. The northern states focused on preserving their union while the southern states were preserving the states' right.