The Ottoman Empire's capital was Istanbul, while the Roman Empire's capital was Rome. In the Ottoman Empire, only the son of the sultan could supplant him as a ruler. On the other hand, the Roman Empire was a republic with a senate that would vote on who would be appointed Caesar. The two empires also had their own spiritual, scientific, cultural, and political structures.
The Ottoman Empire's soldiers had more sophisticated weapons than Roman soldiers, as guns did not exist 2000 years ago. Roman engineers mostly concentrated on producing vaults, arches, and systems to serve the cities' plethora. The Ottoman Empire had only one state religion, which was Islam. Even though non-Muslim subjects were urged to convert to Islam, Christians and Jews were allowed to adhere to their beliefs in agreement with Umar ibn al-Khattab's Treaty.
The Roman Empire supported the worship of an assortment of deities in a building known as the Pantheon. The Pantheon included worship of gods like Mars, Apollo, Pluto, Neptune, Jupiter, Janus, and Bacchus and certain goddesses, such as Venus and Juno. In Roman society, slaves did not have rights. However, In the Ottoman Empire, there were Islamic laws that guaranteed slaves certain rights.