Yes, Australia was discovered during the Age of Exploration.
The Age of Exploration also known as the Age of Discovery was a period from the 15th century to the early 18th century. At this time, European ships travelled all around the world to search for new trading routes to feed capitalism in Europe.
The first recorded European sightings of the Australian mainland by Dutch explorers were in 1606. A ship captained by Willem Janszoon, was the first to chart the Australian coast and meet the indigenous people.
Willem Janszoon sighted the Coast of Cape York Peninsula and made landfall on 26 of February at the Pennefather River near the modern town of Weipa On Cape York.
On the 22nd of August, 1770, Captain James Cook claimed the whole of east coast of Australia for Great Britain.