Which of the following statement(s) is/are true concerning the antibody response to an invading antigen?
A. All antibodies are composed of one type of heavy and one type of light protein chain B. The carboxyl terminus of the heavy chain is the antigen binding site C. Antibody of the immunoglobulin G class is the initial antibody produced in response to an antigenic stimulus D. Immunoglobulins A, D, and E play an active role in the circulating humoral response
All antibodies are composed of one type of heavy and one type of light protein chain-humoral defenses consist of antibody (immunoglobulin; ig) and complement. all ig classes (igm, igg, iga, ige, igd) and igg subclasses are composed of one type (m, g, a, e, d) of heavy and one type (k and g ) of light protein chains that consist of several domains both structurally and functionally. each ig molecule contains one or more units that consist of two heavy and two light chains linked by disulfide bonds. the amino terminus of both heavy and light chains contain several hypervariable regions that fold in three dimensions to produce the antigen-binding site. the carboxyl terminus of the heavy chains contain regions that activate complement and bind fc receptors, by which direct adherence to polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages take place after antigen binding occurs.initially, antibody of the igm class is produced in response to an antigenic stimulus. a second exposure to the same antigen, or a cross-reactive antigen, leads to the so-called second set response, in which antibody of the igg class with two binding sites is produced more rapidly and in larger quantity compared to the initial igm primary response. immunoglobulin of the iga class is secreted by gut-associated lymphoid tissue and is combined with secretory components of protein to form a dimer termed secretory iga. this antibody acts at a variety of epithelial sites to prevent microbial adherence and invasion. igd and ige exist in smaller amounts in the circulation and do not appear to play a major role as host defense components.