The date it was finished is not known. However, we do know that it premiered in Russia in 1954, just 37 years after the Bolshevik revolution that ended the reign of the Romanov family. The piece was written by Dmitri Shostakovich. The story goes that the conductor for that particular celebration had no music he felt was suitable for the occasion. So, he contacted Shostakovich.
From there, it is said that he agreed to write a new piece for the celebration, and finished the composition in three days. Certainly, this is one of the fastest pieces to be written. At least ten of the instruments in the piece are off-stage or behind the curtains. The rest of the instruments are on-stage, where the audience can see them.