These are actually rather hard to describe without a camera. Well, all but the range finder. This is a lens you can buy to add to a camera. It basically allows your camera to measure distance and take images with sharp focus. The single lens reflex is basically a camera that has one lens; what appears in the viewfinder is what the camera actually sees.
The view camera is basically a large camera that has an inverted image on ground glass instead of a film. What you see is the picture you’ll get. The twin lens reflex has two lens: one that shows the photographer what picture they’re taking, and one to actually take the picture. This is why it’s different than a single lens reflex camera.