Food poisoning is not a direct cause of colitis. It can be a contributing factor if you have a serious case of salmonella or campylobacter. These can increase the risks of developing irritable bowel syndrome, which can lead to colitis.
Colitis, for those unaware, is basically serious inflammation of the colon and the bowels. It could be confused for serious food poisoning since it presents with many of the same symptoms. One of the hallmark symptoms, however, is diarrhea. It might or might not have blood, but if there is blood in the stool, you want to see a doctor ASAP - especially if you know you’ve just caught or gotten over either of the two types of food poisoning mentioned.