Four phases of globalisation
This approach naturally leads to 4 phases of globalisation.
• In Phase 1, consumption and production take place together because the “hunter-gather” lifestyle meant consumption moving to “production” (i.e. food sources).
• In Phase 2, consumption and production remained together but it was because people “brought” the food to themselves by developing agriculture.
• Phase 3 was when modern globalisation started in the 19th century. Steam ships and railroads (and world peace called Pax Britannica) made it economical to consume goods that were made faraway. With things being made in one country and consumed in another, trade boomed.
• Phase 4 – the one we are in today – started when production itself got broken up and shifted around to different nations. This is known as offshoring and outsourcing and it radically transformed world trade and manufacturing