A client brings in his 5-month-old puppy for vomiting and diarrhea of 2-day duration. He indicates that he himself vaccinated the puppy with injectables purchased at a local feed and grain store. He also states that he followed a vaccine protocol described on the Internet. Despite this owner’s good intentions, the puppy tests positive for parvovirus. What is a plausible explanation for this test result?
A. The puppy was immunosuppressed at the time of vaccination and could therefore not mount a sufficient immune response to the vaccines. B. The owner administered the vaccine incorrectly or at inappropriate intervals. C. The vaccine was stored at an improper temperature by the retail store or by the owner, thereby rendering the vaccine ineffective. D. All of the above.
All of the above.-d: the efficacy of any one vaccine is dependent on several variables. first and foremost, it must be stored in the proper conditions once it leaves the manufacturer. as a consumer, it is impossible to know if the store immediately refrigerated the vaccines after they arrived. also, the consumer must transport the vaccine back home and may do so in less than optimal conditions. perhaps this individual forgets that the vaccine is in the car, or runs errands on a hot day, thereby further endangering the vaccines potency.
if the vaccine does happen to make it home without insult, there are still other variables that could produce a less than optimal immune response once it is injected. for example, the owner could inadvertently inject all the way through the skin, in which case the puppy receives no vaccine at all. if the owner starts the vaccine series too early (before 6 weeks), maternal antibodies will destroy the vaccine. also, if the puppy is sick or is born with a weak immune system, it may not be able to mount a sufficient antibody response to the vaccine. in all these instances, vaccines will lose their efficacy, which is why it is important to educate the public about the dangers of store-bought vaccines and why exams are recommended before any vaccine is administered.