Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding jugular intravenous drug administration in horses?
A. The needle should be inserted caudally into the jugular vein in order to match the direction of blood flow. B. The cranial third of the neck should be used to access the jugular vein to avoid accidental entry into the carotid artery C. The medication should be bolused as quickly as possible. D. Arterial versus venous blood cannot be differentiated by color when drawn into a syringe filled with fluid.
The medication should be bolused as quickly as possible.-caution must always be exercised when performing an intravenous (iv) injection in the jugular vein of horses because the carotid artery lies in close proximity to the jugular vein, and can therefore be mistakenly accessed even by the most experienced technicians. steps to help minimize this error include utilizing the cranial third of the neck for venipuncture. this is because the artery does not lie in such close proximity to the vein as it does in the more caudal aspect of the neck. another tactic would be to insert a large bore needle first and watch the blood as it exits the hub. if it is a gentle drip, then the needle is in the vein. if it is a steady, pulsating stream, the needle is in the artery and needs to be readjusted. once the needle is in the vein, the drug should be administered slowly in order to give the technician or veterinarian ample time to stop the injection in the event of an adverse reaction. for example, sometimes horses move during an injection and cause the needle to be redirected into the carotid artery. if medication is injected into the carotid artery, it travels straight to the brain where it can cause potentially lethal consequences. thus, it is extremely important not to be overconfident with these injections, and always use good judgment and safe techniques.