Cave art is pretty much what it sounds like. It is art that has been drawn in a cave - mostly on the cave walls. Whether or not something that was painted on a canvas in a cave is cave art is up for debate. It began around 40,000 years ago, during the Paleolithic period. No one is quite sure when it ended, but it certainly had ended by the Renaissance.
The earliest cave art that has been found is in caves in France and Spain, but there are spots of cave art all around Europe and Asia. The purpose of cave art, however, is up for debate. They typically depict handprints or hunts. It could have been an early system of cataloging what they hunted and killed successfully, as well as for genealogy.