The difference between a white stock and a brown stock is that in brown stock the bones are roasted first, the process of roasting the bones gives the brown stock a darker color. Since the bones are not roasted in white stock, the stock is not as dark as brown stock.
Both white and brown stock can be made from chicken, beef or veal bones (this makes option B and D wrong). In white stock, the bones are blanched first. In brown stock, flavors are added which contributes to the dark color of the stock. Keep in mind that vegetables are not added first in the stock.
Both the terms are often used interchangeably but still, there are some differences between white and brown stock. One of the major difference is that in a brown stock the bones are roasted/browned first as roasting gives the darker color to brown stock.
Another difference is that caramelized flavors are deeper in brown stock than white stock because of bone browningand mixing of meat just before adding it to the water. Brown stock has also the advantage of discouraging the stock from being cloudy. White stock is used as the base for veloute sauce and its derivative sauces whereas brown stocks are used for making demi-glace and its derivatives. For white stock, the bones are blanched first, and then drained and rinsed before simmering.