Neutral vs. prescriptive; encouraging vs. discouraging; judgmental vs. nonjudgmental.-b. this is from marcias identity development theory. d. this is the correct answer. the others i just made up. -neutral vs. prescriptive. advisors who are neutral are reluctant to tell students what to do. prescriptive advisors use their authority as advisors to tell students what to do. -encouraging vs. discouraging. encouraging advisors support students by using positive phrases and withhold criticism. discouraging advisors are critical of the students behavior. -judgmental vs. nonjudgmental. judgmental advisors doubt everything they are told and accept nothing at face value. nonjudgmental advisors accept what students tell them without criticism (buck, et al., 2001).