A neuron is a basic functional cell of the nervous system; there are mainly three types of neuron which include:
The sensory neuron, which carries messages to the central nervous system, motor neuron carries messages from the central nervous system, and interneurons are between sensory and motor neurons in the CNS. The reflex arc is an anatomical pathway for reflex action. Reflex activity occurs in the body without our consciousness.
The five components of the reflex arc include:
1. A receptor that reacts to the stimulus.
2. Sensory neuron conducts impulses to the CNS.
3. Motor neuron conducts impulses from the CNS to the effector.
The effector organ is the structure (such as muscle or gland) where the activity occurs in response to the stimulus by contracting or secreting a product.
There are three neuron types: motor, sensory and relay. When these neurons act together they make a reflecx action: that is, an involuntary not a planned move. Any organism depends on its ability to respond to threat or change in the environment. The nervous system responds fast but with short lived responses.
The nerve pathway is called an arc, the receptor detects a stimulus, sensory neurons send an impulse to relay neurons. These connect with motor neurons which send electrical impulses to an effector. That produces a response such as a muscle contraction.This is the order of a reflex arc.
Sensory receptor receives stimulus from outside world. Sensory neuron sends message to central nervous system. Interneurons process information by communicating with brain. Motor neurons send message back to the muscle. The effector (muscle) reacts by contracting.