The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the first crusade in a sermon at the Council of Clermont. He encouraged military support to the Byzantine Empire and its emperor. The campaigns had substantial social repercussions for Europe and the Holy Land. They also prompted the development of trade and learning in Europe.
The Crusades laid the groundwork for the coming Renaissance. It also enhanced the authority of the church in Europe. Trade and agriculture production was abundant. There was also significant progress in education, including, mathematics, chemistry, medicine, and technology.