The significant difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic is that eukaryotic organisms do not possess a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, whereas the prokaryotic organisms display a complex cell organization. Prokaryotes are unicellular and lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum.
Eukaryotic organisms have arranged cells with membrane-bound organelles with definite nuclei. All plants, animals, fungi protozoa and algae are eukaryotic organisms. Eukaryotes contain 80 S ribosomes, and have many chromosomes, whereas prokaryotes have a single chromosome, and have 70s ribosomes.
The eukaryotic genome is securely packed and arranged into complex chromosomes, while the prokaryotic genome is an unusual complex of DNA with only one loop of stable chromosomes. Eukaryotic cells have a longer generation time, while prokaryotic cells have a shorter generation time.
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes are two types of cells. Prokaryotic cells are small, while eukaryotic cells are larger in size. Another difference between them is the number of cells that each has. Prokaryotic cells have one cell, while eukaryotic cells have multiple cells.
Another difference between them is in regards to the nucleus. Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus. Though they do not have a nucleus, they do have a nucleoid, which is known as a naked loop.
Eukaryotic cells will have a nucleus. This nucleus will include DNA and histones. Other things that a eukaryotic cell will have that a prokaryotic cell will not is a membrane and mitochondria.
There a lot to be used when differentiating between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes are organisms whose cells are characterized by the absence of a nucleus. Apart from the fact that their cells lack a nucleus, some membrane-bound organelles are not also present. As for eukaryotes, their cells are characterized by the presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.
Some of these organelles that are present in eukaryotic cells are mitochondria, Golgi body, chloroplast, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, etc. Another difference can be noticed in terms of size. Prokaryotes usually have their cell size ranging from 0.2-2.0 micrometers in diameter. In contrast, eukaryotes usually have a cell size ranging from 10-100 micrometers in diameter.
Binary fission is the process for cell division in prokaryotes, while other processes like meiosis do not occur in prokaryotes. For eukaryotes, cell division can either occur through meiosis or mitosis. The flagellum is an important part of both the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, but it is more complex in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes.