Yes, in fact there are many collections which will auction rare or historically significant books. These include organizations like Sotheby’s Books and Manuscripts and Freeman’s Books and Manuscripts. Books that get auctioned tend to be books that are rare such as a handwritten book by J.K. Rowling with only seven copies. Other documents include writings of the founding fathers of the United States such as the Federalist Essays and very old documents such as copies of the Magna Carta. These old documents tend to be enormously expensive, millions of dollars, because they are so rare.
Organizations which specialize in auctions of old books and manuscripts will usually have team of scholars trained in history, art, art history, literature, linguistics, science, and similar fields to care for the books and manuscripts and study them.
Authors whose works you will expect to find at book auctions include famous figures such as Albert Einstein, Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, and Alexander Hamilton to name a few.