The most recently animal to go completely extinct is probably the Bramble Cay melomys. They resemble a big rat. They were listed as extinct in 2016. Many other animals have been listed as endangered more recently than 2016 but not extinct. Extinct means that there are no other animals of that species on Earth. They are not in the wild and they are not in captivity either.
The last extinct animal to go on the extinction list took place in 2009 and it is Christmas Island pipistrelle. This is a type of bat. Many times these animals become extinct because their habitat is destroyed and they live in areas that have many different natural disasters occurring. Then they can’t survive in the area.
The most recently extinct animal is the West African Black Rhinoceros. This rhino was declared extinct back in 2011 but had been last seen in 2006. They were considered to be genetically different than other rhinoceros species. The decline in population is believed to be related to poaching, farmers defending their crops, and trophy hunting.
The trophy wasn't so much the animal itself but their horns. West African Rhinoceros horns are prized possessions among many wealthy hunters, on the black market, as well as for their use in ancient Chinese medicine. Another problem for these animals is the fact that their habitat being destroyed as people settled and crops grew.